John, these icons for mosques are realy big, they cover a size of the large city. How many christian churches and Jewish synagogues are there in Germany? Maybe we should compare it in numbers instead of the symbols. I am susprised that there are so few mosques in Eastern Germany. I actually thought that Eastern Germany has more muslim immigrants.
John, these icons for mosques are realy big, they cover a size of the large city. I am susprised that there are so few mosques in Eastern Germany. I actually thought that Eastern Germany has more muslim immigrants.
Yes, the symbols are large and shock with the over representation.
The Moslems arrived in West Germany in the 60's and 70's when Germany was suffering a great labor shortage. At the same time many people fromYugoslavia came up as well, earned their money and built nice homes and businesses back home in then-communist Yugoslavia. They had the freedom of travel.
The Turks, or perhaps better said in many instances, Kurds from Turkey, came as 'guest workers' and stayed. So Germany is into the third generation of Turkish origin German citizens, many of whom remain Moslem, at least nominally, as Germany and the USA are at least nominally Christian. (practices may vary with individual).
In contrast there are many Vietnamese in the Czech Republic, imported in the same era under the communist government to also meet the labor demand of the time. They have stayed, primarily in Czechia and not Slovakia, and have their own status as sharp business people with a reputation for undercutting (say out - competing) traditional Czechs in business and retail of cheap clothes.
There will be more churches and cathedrals if you would put a map of them next to mosque map. Next to Turkish Muslims like Kaima said many people from Yugoslavia came, amongst them many Croats, Serbs, Slovene's, Macedonians, Kosovar Alabanians and last but not least many Bosnians. These Bosnians are European muslims and they have their own mosques in Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxemburg, Austria and France, Denmark, Sweden and Norway. Turks, Moroccans, Bosnians, Arabs, Iranians (Persians), and Kurds have their separate mosques. Next to Turkish Kurds you have Iraqi Kurds, Syrian Kurds and Iranian Kurds in Germany and other European countries. These Kurds have different dialects and thus different National communities and probably mosques. Today, the majority of Kurds are Sunni Muslim, belonging to the Shafi school. The Kurdish following of the Shafi legal code has caused some tension when pushed up against Sunni Turks and Sunni Arabs who subscribe to the Hanafi legal code.
There is also a significant minority of Kurds who are Shia Muslims, primarily living in the Ilam, Kermanshah and Khorasan provinces of Iran, central and southeastern Iraq (Fayli Kurds) as well as Shia Kurds who are in Syria and especially in Turkey. Amongst Shia Muslim Kurdish communities, in particular the practitioners of Alevism in Anatolia, the Zaza language is found more commonly.
Mystical practices and participation in Sufi orders are also widespread among Kurds, with prominent Kurdish Sufi saints including Piryones.
To make everything more complicated you have also Christian Kurds, Jewish Kurds, Kurdish followers of Yarsanism, a syncretic religion. And ofcourse the Yazidi Kurds and the Zoroastrianist Kurds, these people all live in Germany. All Kurds of any faith are accepted by most Kurds as brothers and sisters of the same people. Only fanatic and fundamentalist Sunni Muslim Kurds reject other Kurds. But you have national differences between the Kurds and Kurd tribes and clans.
The Turks have three main mosque organisations:
(1) Dyanet, the Turkish state organisation for mosques, which 'was' the most moderate one. In Turkey, the Directorate of Religious Affairs (Turkish: Diyanet İşleri Başkanlığı, normally referred to simply as the Diyanet) is an official state institution established in 1924 under article 136 of the Constitution of Turkey by the Grand National Assembly of Turkey as a successor to the Shaykh al-Islām after the abolition of the Ottoman Caliphate.
As specified by law, the duties of the Diyanet are “to execute the works concerning the beliefs, worship, and ethics of Islam, enlighten the public about their religion, and administer the sacred worshiping places”. The Diyanet drafts a weekly sermon delivered at the nation’s 85,000 mosques and more than 2,000 mosques abroad that function under the directorate. It provides Quranic education for children and trains and employs all of Turkey’s imams, who are technically considered civil servants. It has been criticized for ignoring the Islamic creed of the 33–40% of Turkey's population that is not Hanafi Sunni Muslim.
(2) Millî Görüş, a conservative mosque organisation. Millî Görüş (Turkish: [milˈliː ɡøˈɾyʃ], "National Outlook" or "National Vision") is a religio-political movement and a series of Islamist parties inspired by Necmettin Erbakan. It has been called one of "the leading Turkish diaspora organizations in Europe" and also described as the largest Islamic organization operating in the West. Founded in 1969, the movement claimed to have "87,000 members across Europe, including 50,000 in Germany," as of 2005. The term also refers to the "religious vision" of the organization that emphasizes the moral and spiritual strength of Islamic faith (Iman) and explains the Muslim world's decline as a result of its imitation of Western values (such as secularism) and inappropriate use of Western technology. The Movement is active in nearly all European countries and also countries like Australia, Canada and the United States.
(3) Süleymanci (Süleymancılar) mosque organisation in Turkey, with independent branches in Germany, the Netherlands and United States. It is called 'de Süleymanci beweging' in the Netherlands, with it's own mosque organisation.
This organisation is a Umbrella organisation for 48 islamitische organisations in the Nederlands, and 15 associated foundations who develop societal actvitities.
Süleymanci follows islamic scholar Suleyman Hilmi Tunahan (1888-1959), who founded a mystical movement. Some Turks in the heavily divided Turkish community in the Netherlands accuse the Umbrella organisation of running islamic orphanages.
This movement is heavily criticized, oppressed, attacked, criminalized and blacklisted by the Turkish government and by Turkish diaspora communities in Europe and other Western countries as being the perpetrator of the 2016 Turkish coup d'état attempt. Thousands of military personal, public servants, teachers, professors, employee's had been fired and imprisoned. By far the greatest purge was in the Ministry of National Education, where 15,200 teachers were suspended. The licenses of 21,000 teachers in the private sector were also cancelled. The Council of Higher Education asked all deans of state and private universities, numbering 1577, to resign. 626 educational institutions, mostly private, were shut down. The licenses of 24 radio and television channels and the press cards of 34 journalists accused of being linked to Gülen were revoked.
Still you have many hidden en some open Gülen supporters in the Netherlands, Belgium, France, Germany, Austria, the UK, USA and Canada.
The Gülen movement (Gülen Hareketi, in Turkish) is an Islamic transnational religious and social movement led by Turkish preacher Fethullah Gülen, who has lived in the United States since 1999. The movement has no official name but it is usually referred to as Hizmet ("the Service"), or Hizmet Hareketi ("the Service Movement"), by its followers and as a Sufi cemaat ("society", "community", or "assembly") by the broader public in Turkey. The movement's largest body is the Alliance for Shared Values. The movement has attracted supporters and critics in Turkey, Central Asia, and other parts of the world. It is active in education with private schools and universities in over 180 countries. It has initiated forums for interfaith dialogue. It has substantial investments in media, finance, and for-profit health clinics. Despite its teachings that are considered conservative even in Turkey, some have praised the movement as a pacifist, modern-oriented version of Islam, and as an alternative to more extreme schools of Islam such as Salafism. But it has also been accused of having "global, apocalyptic ambition", a "cultish hierarchy" and of being a secretive Islamic sect.
Pieter, I can imagine that the presence of so many mosques, especially if they call for prayers many times per day (do they in Netherlands?) can be disturbing for non-muslims. But is these are just houses of worship, it is OK.
My self have stayed a bit clear of this, but felt should contribute some thing or risk being some what racist.
The primary dislike personally of Mosque, is the call to prayer five times daily beginning in the dawn hours. Other wise I have nothing against Muslims. For some reason, most generally stay away from me whilst at the market simply shopping for fresh vegtables and fish if available. If the ladies are wearing the full face veil then, and I mean nothing by it, but direct eye contact and they turn away, so that is it.