To me it looks like the times of Stalin. The Gulag system (Main Administration of Camps), the Soviet forced-labor camp-system that was set up under Vladimir Lenin and reached its peak during Joseph Stalin's rule from the 1930s to the early 1950s. And today it reminds me of the concentration camps that exist in North Korea. The North Korean internment camps are located in central and northeastern North Korea. They comprise many prison labor colonies in secluded mountain valleys, completely isolated from the outside world. These internment camps are for people accused of political offences or denounced as politically unreliable are run by the state security department.
The re-education camps for criminals are run by the interior ministry. There is a fluent passage between common crimes and political crimes, because people who get on the bad side of influential partisans are often denounced on the basis of false accusations. They are then sent to detention centers, threatened with brutal torture and forced to make false confessions (Lee Soon-ok, for example, had to kneel down whilst being showered with water at icy temperatures with other prisoners, of whom six did not survive) and are then condemned in a brief show trial to a long-term prison sentence. In North Korea, political crimes are greatly varied, from border crossing to any disturbance of the political order, and they are rigorously punished. Due to the dire prison conditions with hunger and torture, a large percentage of prisoners do not survive their sentence term.
Re-education camps in North Korea
The re-education camps are large prison building complexes surrounded by high walls. The plight of the prisoners is quite similar to that in the political prison camps. They have to perform slave labour in prison factories. If they do not meet the work quota, they are tortured and (at least in Kaechon camp) confined for many days to special prison cells, too small to stand up or lie full-length in.
In distinction from the internment camps for political prisoners, the re-education camp prisoners are instructed ideologically after work and are forced to memorize speeches of Kim Il-sung and Kim Jong-il and to undergo self-criticism rites. Many prison inmates are guilty of common crimes penalized also in other countries, but often they were committed out of economic necessity, e.g. illegal border crossing, stealing food or illegal trading.
There are around 15–20 reeducation camps in North Korea.
Two camps are documented with coordinates, satellite images and testimonies of former prisoners.
Jaga, I will not compare the Chinese practice to other regimes who had an official xenophobic, ethnocentric, racist and one state policy, glorification of the state and the leader, because this is uniquely Chinese. Fact is that this is very worrisome. Because the Atheist, Communist, ChineseNationalist government is playing the ethnic card here and is being busy with ethnic cleansing, the persecution and systematic oppression of a religious minority. These are gross human rights abuses and violations of the Geneva Convention on Human Rights. Today they target the ethnic Turkic Muslim Uyghurs from the so called Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of the People’s Republic of China and the Tibetan Buddhists in Tibet, tomorrow they might target ChineseRoman-Catholics and ChineseProtestant christians. But by large infiltration, influx and thus import of Han Chinese peoplethe Chinese try to Sinicizatize the Uyghurs by enforcing Han Chinese settlements, Han Chinese cities, Han Chinese culture and these Han Chinese soldier farmers on their Xinjiang land.
Sinicization, sinicisation, sinofication, or sinification is a process whereby non-Chinese societies come under the influence of Chinese culture, particularly Han Chinese culture and societal norms. Areas of influence include diet, writing, industry, education, language, law, lifestyle, politics, philosophy, religion, science and technology, culture, and value systems. More broadly, "Sinicization" may refer to policies of acculturation, assimilation, or cultural imperialism imposed by China onto neighboring East Asian countries. Evidence of this can be seen in the value systems, cuisine, architectural style, and lexicons.
The Hui Muslim 36th Division (of the National Revolutionary Army of the the Nationalist Party of China Kuomintang) governed southern Xinjiang in 1934–1937. The administration that was set up was colonial in nature, putting up street signs and names in Chinese, which used to be in only Uighur language. They lived much like Han Chinese, importing Han cooks and baths. The Hui also switched carpet patterns from Uyghur to Han in state owned carpet factories.
Turkic soldiers waving Kuomintang flags near Kumul.
The 36th Division was a cavalry division in the National Revolutionary Army. It was created in 1932 by the Kuomintang for General Ma Zhongying, who was also its first commander. It was made almost entirely out of Hui Muslim troops, all of its officers were Hui, with a few thousand Uighurs forced conscripts in the rank and file. It was commonly referred to as the "KMT 36th Division", or "Tungan 36th Division".
Watched by uighur woman with child, tungan troops drill at Khotan 1937 36th division drilling in Khotan in 1937.
Sinocentrism, the ideology that China is the cultural, political and/or economic center of the world might have to do with the present situation.
Uighur people (Encyclopaedia Britannica)
Let the mostly Uyghur people of southern Xinjiang, especially the young, have something to do and money to earn, Li Keqiang told the region's top officials. Photo: internet
Uighur, Chinese (Pinyin) Weiwu’er, also spelled Uygur or Uyghur, a Turkic-speaking people of interior Asia. Uighurs live for the most part in northwestern China, in the Uygur Autonomous Region of Xinjiang; a small number live in the Central Asian republics. There were some 10,000,000 Uighurs in China and at least a combined total of 300,000 in Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan in the early 21st century.
The Uighur language is part of the Turkic group of Altaic languages, and the Uighurs are among the oldest Turkic-speaking peoples of Central Asia. They are mentioned in Chinese records from the 3rd century ce. They first rose to prominence in the 8th century, when they established a kingdom along the Orhon River in what is now north-central Mongolia. In 840 this state was overrun by the Kyrgyz, however, and the Uighurs migrated southwestward to the area around the Tien (Tian) Shan (“Celestial Mountains”). There the Uighurs formed another independent kingdom in the Turfan Depression region, but this was overthrown by the expanding Mongols in the 13th century.
The Uighurs are mainly a sedentary village-dwelling people who live in the network of oases formed in the valleys and lower slopes of the Tien Shan, Pamirs, and related mountain systems. The region is one of the most arid in the world; hence, for centuries they have practiced irrigation to conserve their water supply for agriculture. Their principal food crops are wheat, corn (maize), kaoliang (a form of sorghum), and melons. The chief industrial crop is cotton, which has long been grown in the area. Many Uighurs are employed in petroleum extraction, mining, and manufacturing in urban centres.
Women wearing traditional Uighur clothes in the city of Kashgar in the Chinese Xinjiang province.
The chief Uighur cities are Ürümqi, the capital of Xinjiang, and Kashgar (Kashi), an ancient centre of trade on the historic Silk Road near the border between Russia and China. The Uighurs have lacked political unity in recent centuries, except for a brief period during the 19th century when they were in revolt against Beijing. Their social organization is centred on the village. The Uighurs of Xinjiang are Sunni Muslims.
Large numbers of Han (ethnic Chinese) began moving into Xinjiang after the establishment of the autonomous region in the 1950s. The influx became especially pronounced after 1990, and by the early 20th century the Han constituted two-fifths of Xinjiang’s total population. Over time economic disparities and ethnic tensions grew between the Uighur and Han populations that eventually resulted in protests and other disturbances. A particularly violent outbreak occurred in July 2009, mainly in Ürümqi, in which it was reported that nearly 200 people (mostly Han) were killed and some 1,700 were injured. Violent incidents increased after that and included attacks by knife-wielding assailants and by suicide bombers. Chinese authorities responded by cracking down on Uighurs suspected of being dissidents and separatists. The authorities’ actions included shootings, arrests, and long jail sentences until 2017, when the Chinese government initiated a thorough crackdown on Uighurs in Xinjiang. Citing a need for greater security, the government set up cameras, checkpoints, and constant police patrols in Uighur-dominated areas. The most controversial governmental undertaking—which was met by protests from human-rights organizations—was the indefinite detention of up to one million Uighurs in “political training centres,” heavily fortified buildings that were likened to the reeducation camps of the Mao Zedong era. In August 2018 the United Nations called upon China to end the detention, but government officials denied the existence of the camps.
Detainees listening to speeches in a Uyghur Re-education camp in Lop County, Xinjiang, April 2017.
Sources: Wikipedia, Encyclopaedia Britannica, the New York Times, Al Jazeera, BBC and my own (Pieter's) historical knowledge and writing.
This exellent video shows the Uyghur (Uighur) Sunni Muslim Turkic asian culture very well
"VideoChina", strongly established by China Intercontinental Communication Center (CICC), is an exhibition and trading platform of high-quality documentaries in various languages for an international audience, depicting a real China from a wide range of perspectives including its economy, culture, society and nature. I want to state very clearly that this beautiful video shows the Chinese side and leaves out the shadow side, the dark side of Kashgar in Xinjiang. It doesn't show the Han Chinese domination and that it is very difficult for many other Uyghur (Uighur) Sunni Muslims to go to mosque, pray, wear religious beards, fast for Ramadan and simply to be muslim and ethnic Uyghur. This video only shows part of the reality. The religious and cultural life of the Uyghur (Uighur) in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region in the People's Republic of China.
As for as this with China, is not a surprise in such a mass crack down and arrest of such large numbers of Islamics. For the Chinese Government is very much aware of widely news spread of such issues in past and present in The Gulf States and Europe. With this, is the stimulus for this not to occur on their respective turf.
For as the Chinese Government, it is not only self sustaining, but self protective. Any thing or any one that would be perceived as an threat to central control and power, in the mindset of those holding the reigns of power, will insure that perceived threat is contained and made harmless.
China irregardless of common thinking, is not a Democracy in any shape or form. It is kind to its people only if they are in step with central control and thinking.
I don't see China today as the SovjetUnion, North Korea, the DDR (East-Germany), the Polish Poeples Republic, Cuba, Vietnam or Venezuela, but as on of the worlds three most powerful superpowers; the USA, the Russian Federation and China. I look at China with geopolitical, Real Politiker, Financial, Economical, Military, social-cultural, diplomatic, Machiavellistic and Carl Schmitt (German jurist and political theorist), Zbigniew Brzezinski (1928–2017), Henry Alfred Kissinger (May 27, 1923) like eyes.
China is not solely a Maoist, Marxist-Leninist Stalinist, communist state, society or system, but more a mix of Chinese state socialism, Chinese state capitalism, Chinese Nationalism, Chinese Patriotism, merged with elements of older Chinese ideas like Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhist elements. The Chinese communists will not admid this, but it is a fact that the present day Chinese culture and society consists these old Chinese elements. Of course the Chinese communist party is all powerful and controls the Chinese economy, the Chinese society and population, the Chinese state, the Chinese army, the Chinese legal system and the Chinese police forces and the Chinese intelligence community.
China is the largest country if you look at it's population of about 1,403,500,365 people. India is second with about 1,324,171,354 people. In the Chinese communist party had 89,450,000 members. These 89,450,000 Chinese communists must control 1,403,500,365 Chinese people. That is impossible, and thus the party will use advanced propaganda, political marketing, Public relations and communication tools to spread the Chinese Communist message throughout China and the Asian world. The ideology of the Chinese Communist party consists of Chinese communism, Marxism–Leninism, Socialism with Chinese characteristics and Chinese unification.
The present Chinese Communist party (CCP) puts a great deal of effort into the party schools and crafting its ideological message. Before the "Practice Is the Sole Criterion for the Truth" campaign, the relationship between ideology and decision-making was a deductive one, meaning that policy-making was derived from ideological knowledge.
In the article "Revolutionary Ideals are Higher than Heaven-Studying" (published in 2013), a person writing under the pen name "Autumn Stone", supports Xi Jinping's policy of strengthening the ideological conviction of party cadres, since (as the Leninist mantra goes) ideological unity leads to party unity. The writer claims "Ideals and convictions are the spiritual banners for the united struggle of a country, nation and party, wavering ideals and convictions are the most harmful form of wavering." Adhering to the ideals and convictions of the party creates a link between the party and the masses, and will let the party "gain victories wherever" it goes.
In 2006, at the 16th Plenary Session of the 16th Central Committee, the CCP leadership under Hu Jintao expressed the need to create a new value system, referred to as the socialist core value system. In his speech, entitled "Resolution on Major Issues Concerning the Building of a Socialist Harmonious Society", to the 16th Plenary Session Hu Jintao stated;
The guiding ideology of Marxism, the common ideal of the socialism with Chinese characteristics, the national spirit with patriotism as the core, the spirit of the times with reform and innovation as the core, and the socialist concept of honour and disgrace constitute the basic contents of the socialist core values system. We should persist in integrating the socialist core values system into the entire process of national education and the building of a spiritual civilization and having it run through the various aspect of the modernization drive.
Combining Leninist political praxis and Marxist socio-economics, the purpose of Marxism–Leninism is the two-stage revolutionary development of a capitalist state into a socialist state, guided by the leadership of a vanguard party of professional revolutionaries from the working class and the proletariat. The socialist state is instituted and governed by way of the dictatorship of the proletariat, which determines policy with democratic centralism.
Politically, the Marxist–Leninist communist party is the political vanguard for the organisation of society into a socialist state, which is the lower stage of socio-economic development and progress towards the upper-stage communist society, which is stateless and classless; yet features organised public ownership of the means of production and accelerated industrialisation, pro-active development of the productive forces of society and nationalised natural resources.
Socialism with Chinese characteristics
The theoretical system of socialism with Chinese characteristics (Chinese: 中国特色社会主义; pinyin: Zhōngguó tèsè shèhuìzhǔyì, literally zhōngguó tèsè, meaning "Chinese characteristics"; and shèhuì zhǔyì meaning "socialism") is a broad term for political theories and policies that are seen by their proponents as representing Marxism–Leninism adapted to Chinese circumstances and specific time periods. For instance, in this view Xi Jinping Thought is considered to represent Marxist–Leninist policies suited for China's present condition while Deng Xiaoping Theory was considered relevant for the period when it was formulated.
The term entered common usage during the era of Deng Xiaoping and was largely associated with Deng's overall program of adopting elements of market economics as a means to foster growth using foreign investment and to increase productivity (especially in the countryside where 80% of China's population lived) while the Communist Party of China retained both its formal commitment to achieve communism and its monopoly on political power. In the party's official narrative, socialism with Chinese characteristics is Marxism–Leninism adapted to Chinese conditions and a product of scientific socialism. The theory stipulated that China was in the primary stage of socialism due to its relatively low level of material wealth and needed to engage in economic growth before it pursued a more egalitarian form of socialism, which in turn would lead to a communist society described in Marxist orthodoxy.
Chinese (re)unification, more specifically Cross-strait (re)unification, is the irredentist concept of Greater China that expresses the goal of unifying the mainland China (People's Republic of China) and Taiwan (Republic of China) into a single sovereign state. The term was developed in the 1970s as part of the Chinese Communist Party's strategy to address the "Taiwan Issue," as PRC started to normalize foreign relations with a number of countries including the United States and Japan. In 1979, the People's Congress of China published “An Open Letter to Taiwan Compatriots” (告台湾同胞书) which included the term "Chinese unification" as an ideal for Cross-Strait relations. In 1981, the Chairman of the People's Congress Standing Committee Ye Jianying announced the "Nine Policies" for the PRC's stance on the Cross-Strait relations, with "Chinese Peaceful Unification" (祖国和平统一) as the first policy. Ever since then, "One Country, Two Systems; Chinese Unification" has been emphasized at every National Congress of the Communist Party as the principles to deal with Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan; "One Country, Two Systems" specifically about PRC's policy towards post-colonial Hong Kong and Macao, and "Chinese Unification" specifically towards Taiwan.
Territory controlled by the People's Republic of China (PRC) (purple) and the Republic of China (ROC) (orange). The size of minor islands has been exaggerated in this map for ease of visibility.