there was a conference in Warsaw sponsored by the US that netanyahu transformed into; bunch of accusations that poland collaborated with Nazi and also into bunch of anti-iran nstatements. Everybody in Poland is upset. In the same manner Netanyahu could accuse Jews as being nazi Colaborators since Jewish elders were forced tonpreoarebthe names of Jews sent to Auschwitz from ghettos. Anyway, netanyahu is losing any credibility he still had.
That darn war seems to constantly reappear time after time with respective sides bringing up old memories. Most of these people were not even alive in those times, but I was. My birth years was in 1940 in Bremen Germany. Unfortionatly the British bombs destroyed any record and so other then my mother and Auntie, I would have been stateless.
I realize each of us being of Europe, have personal losses in that darn war and must live with it. I realize the sensative nature that Polish people live with in the manner their/yours Polish state was over run in a manner of a short few days by the Nazi military of that time. I understand also that my father was with his Panzer unit in that action, he then was transfered to North Africa then the Eastern front in Russia where he died whilst in action with his crew in a Stug.
At one time until I matured enough to learn understanding, I hated every Russian ever born. This was until Auntie sit me down for a talk. She explained very kindly then begin to talk plain facts to me, she wiped my tears and lifted my chine up and kissed me on the forehead. We never again brought up the subject, but I felt it deep in to my mind and in my bones.
I was very fortunant with such a strong willed family, others though I understand did not/were not as fortunant as my self. It is not of thinking others are lesser, but to the contrary, just were not as my self as fortunant.
But for the PiS government to lable all Germans as the cause of their displeasure, then this is a different situation that is upon their shoulders to bear as follows:"the Poles and Jews were bestially murdered by the Germans.”
For we are all very close friends here and my self do not place much in the above, but it is still used.
Karl, very well said. Your auntie was a wise woman. Poles also brings their constant claims to more ereparations. But Israel, especially Netanyahu is a special type of a bully. Don't worry about me and thebgenaration that follows me, we are Over the war
Karl, very well said. Your auntie was a wise woman. Poles also brings their constant claims to more ereparations. But Israel, especially Netanyahu is a special type of a bully. Don't worry about me and thebgenaration that follows me, we are Over the war
Thank you for your kindness and thoughtful reply. I do have a much better understanding now with your reply, for it has set my mind and heart at ease, for each have weighed very heavy at times.
Jaga, Karl and fellow Forum members and visitors of this Forum,
Again I say, Netanyahu, is silent about the terrible part of the Holocaust in Hungary in which Hungarians of the Arrow Cross Party killed thousands of jews in Budapest and actively assisted the German SS, SD and Gestapo in the Holocaust. And I didn't hear him abpout Romanian collaboration with the Nazi's, Croatian concentrationcamps of the The Ustaša – Croatian Revolutionary Movement (Croatian: Ustaša – Hrvatski revolucionarni pokret) which members murdered hundreds of thousands of Serbs, Jews, and Roma as well as political dissidents in Yugoslavia during World War II.
I do believe that it is wrong that the Polishg government ignores the collaboration of some Poles ( a minority) with the German/Austrian Nazi occupiers in murdering jews for personal financial gain or hatred for jews as 'the others'.
The climate of today is wrong, because there is a lack of freedom of historical research. One side exaggerates the participation in collaboration with the Nazi's, while the other side denies it's involvement in the Holocaust. The truth as always lies in the middle.
Netanyahu is wrong in this case and acting foolishly, but also the Polish government with it's stict colored interpretation of the past and with it's hindering of historical accuracy and the truth is also on the wrong track in this. Again, I think this development is unnessecary, but National pride, ego's of politicians and national agenda's play a role in this.
You can't undo certain historical facts like the fact that there were Polish collaborators, the Polish Blue Police in the Gettho's and the Jedwabne pogrom ( en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jedwabne_pogrom ).
Thank you for your research in to this for my self was not aware of the depth such killing of people in Hungary/Croatia and Yugoslavia just for the reason of their religion. It seems strange today to think how on this very earth people would kill others on such a scale that is beyound the emagination.
For with above, it is proof positive the most dangerous being on this earth is: Man
It is always important to realise that the core of Nazism lay in Germany, but that the roots ofNazism and the collaborators of Nazism weren't only German or Austrian, Germans and Austrians. The NSDAP, SA and SS also had some French, British, Swedish, Swiss, Italian, Russian, Roman-Catholic and Protestant (Lutheran) roots in the sense that there were under layers of Christian anti-semitism, colonial racism, imperialism, the Roman salute, the influence of Italian Fascism (their blackshirts will have influenced the uniform of the SS), the Russian anti-semetic "Protocols of the Meetings of the Learned Elders of Zion", British and French writers and perople like the British-born German philosopher Houston Stewart Chamberlain (/ˈtʃeɪmbərlɪn/; 9 September 1855 – 9 January 1927) and the French aristocrat, novelist, diplomat and travel writer Joseph Arthur de Gobineau (14 July 1816 – 13 October 1882), the French anthropologist and a theoretician of eugenics and racialism Count Georges Vacher de Lapouge (12 December 1854 – 20 February 1936), the Swedish physician Herman Bernhard Lundborg (April 7, 1868 in Väse in Värmland, Sweden – May 9, 1943 in Östhammar in Uppland, Sweden), the Swiss-born German psychiatrist, geneticist, eugenicist and Nazi Ernst Rüdin (April 19, 1874 in St. Gallen – October 22, 1952), the American lawyer, writer, and zoologist known primarily for his work as a eugenicist and conservationist Madison Grant (November 19, 1865 – May 30, 1937) and the American eugenicist and biologist Charles Benedict Davenport (June 1, 1866 – February 18, 1944). I have mentioned the Dutch, Flemish, Walloon, French, Danish, Hungarian, Romanian, Croat, Ukrainian, Russian, Baltic, Bosnian and other collaborators with the Nazi occupiers of European nations and the Holocaust before.
The Roman salute
Benito Mussolini is shown with members of the Blackshirt Legion during a demonstration in Rome in 1922.
The collaborationalist Dutch police during the Second World War. Many of them were Nazi NSB members, but not all of them
Dutch Landwacht SS Nazi troops
The Holocaust (Shoa) could take place due to thousands of larger, middle big and smaller Nazi concentrationcamps, extermination camps, Euthenasia killing facilities, and the work of German and Austrian Schutzstaffel (SS) paramilitary death squads of Nazi Germany, Einsatzgruppen, but also regual Wehrmacht units, Ordnungspolizei (Grüne Polizei), the Dutch police which collaborated with the German SS, Ordnungspolizei, SD/SIPO and Gestapo in rounding up Dutch jews, the Dutch railways NS which transported Dutch jews to Auschwitz, Bergen Belsen, Buchenwald and other concentration camps, Dutch Germaansche SS in Nederland, Weerafdeling ( en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Weerbaarheidsafdeling ), the paramiliary collaborationalist Dutch Landwacht militia ( pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Landstorm_Nederland ), Vichy France ( en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vichy_France ), Free Corps Denmark (Danish: Frikorps Danmark), the Hungarian Arrow Cross Party participated in The Holocaust in Hungary, the Slovak Hlinka Guard participated in The Holocaust in Slovakia.
Another collaborationalist example was the 13th Waffen Mountain Division of the SS "Handschar" (1st Croatian) a mountain infantry division of the Waffen-SS, an armed branch of the German Nazi Party that served alongside but was never formally part of the Wehrmacht during World War II. From March to December 1944, it fought a counter-insurgency campaign against communist-led Yugoslav Partisan resistance forces in the Independent State of Croatia, a fascist puppet state of Germany that encompassed almost all of modern-day Croatia, all of modern-day Bosnia and Herzegovina as well as parts of Serbia. It was given the title Handschar (Bosnian: Handžar) after a local fighting knife or sword carried by Ottoman policemen during the centuries that the region was part of the Ottoman Empire. It was the first non-Germanic Waffen-SS division, and its formation marked the expansion of the Waffen-SS into a multi-ethnic military force. Composed of Bosnian Muslims (ethnic Bosniaks) with some Catholic Croat soldiers and mostly German and Yugoslav Volksdeutsche (ethnic German) officers and non-commissioned officers, it took an oath of allegiance to both Adolf Hitler and the Croatian leader Ante Pavelić.
Back to some names I mentionned:
Houston Stewart Chamberlain
Houston Stewart Chamberlain (9 September 1855 – 9 January 1927) was a British-born German philosopher who wrote works about political philosophy and natural science; he is described by Michael D. Biddiss, a contributor to the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, as a "racialist writer". Chamberlain married Eva von Bülow, the daughter of composer Richard Wagner, in December 1908, twenty-five years after Wagner's death.
Chamberlain's best known book is the two-volume Die Grundlagen des neunzehnten Jahrhunderts (The Foundations of the Nineteenth Century), published in 1899, which became highly influential in the pan-Germanic völkisch movements of the early 20th century and later influenced the antisemitism of Nazi racial policy. Indeed, Chamberlain has been referred to as "Hitler's John the Baptist".
In November 1918, Chamberlain was completely shattered and horrified by Germany's defeat in the war, a defeat he believed to be impossible, as well as by the November Revolution, which had toppled his beloved monarchy. Adding to his bitterness, Chamberlain was now so paralyzed that he could no longer leave his bed, something that he believed to be the result of poisoning by the British secret service. Chamberlain saw both the defeat and the revolution of 1918 as the work of the Jews, writing in 1919 that Germany was now under the "supremacy of the Jews". In his last years, Chamberlain's anti-Semitic writings grew ever more violent and bloodthirsty as Chamberlain became even more intensely anti-Semitic than he had been before 1918. In March 1920, Chamberlain supported the Kapp Putsch against the Weimar Republic, which he called the Judenrepublik ("Jewish Republic"), and was even more embittered by its failure. The Kapp putsch (13 March 1920) was defeated by a general strike called by the Social Democrats which shut down the entire German economy. A young völkisch activistJosef Stolzing-Cerny and a Chamberlain protégé who had participated in the Kapp putsch wrote to Chamberlain after its failure: "Unfortunately Kapp was not all 'the man with the lion heart', much rather the man with the beer heart, for he continually used all his energies befuddling his brain with alcohol. ... In the same situation a Bismarck or a Napoleon would have hunted the whole Jewish-socialist republic to the devil." Stolzing-Cerny went on to criticize Kapp for not unleashing the Freikorps Marinebrigade Ehrhardt which had taken Berlin against the Jews of Berlin, instead ordering the Freikorps to keep order. After the failure of the putsch, Chamberlain no longer considered Wolfgang Kapp to be one of his heroes, and instead damned him as a weak-willed coward all too typical of German conservatives who talked tough, but never followed up their words with action. More importantly, the failure of the Kapp putsch to a certain extent discredited traditional German conservatism in Chamberlain's eyes, and led him on the search for a more radical alternative, a type of "German socialism" that would offer a "third way" between capitalism and socialism.
In January 1921, Stolzing-Cerny, who joined the NSDAP in December 1920, wrote to Chamberlain about the new man on the political scene, "one Adolf Hitler, an Austrian worker, a man of extraordinary oratorical talents and an astonishingly rich political knowledge who knows marvelously how to thrill the masses". Initially, Chamberlain was hesitant about Hitler, believing that he might be another Kapp, but after the "battle of Coburg", in which Hitler had personally fought with his followers in a street battle against the Communists, Chamberlain started to see Hitler as someone who practiced what he preached. From that a time onwards, Chamberlain started to closely follow and admire Hitler, whom he saw as "Germany's savior". Hitler in his turn had read The Foundations, Chamberlain's biography of Wagner, and many of his wartime essays, and was much influenced by all that Chamberlain had written. British historian Sir Ian Kershaw, a biographer of Hitler, writes that
... Hitler drew heavily for his ideas from well known anti-Semitic tracts such as those by Houston Stewart Chamberlain, Adolf Wahrmund and especially, the arch-popularizer Theodor Fritsch (one of whose emphasis was the alleged sexual abuse of women by the Jews)...
The fact that Hitler was an ardent Wagnerite who adored Wagner's music gave Chamberlain and Hitlera mutual ground for friendship beyond their shared hatred of the Jews. Likewise, Joseph Goebbels had been converted to the völkisch ideology after reading Chamberlain's books and essays, and came to the conclusion on the basis of Chamberlain's writings that the West could only be saved by removing the Jews from German society. During this period, Chamberlain, who was practically a member of the Wagner family, started to push for the Bayreuth Festival to become openly identified with völkisch politics, and to turn the previously apolitical festival into a völkisch rally.
Despite his paralysis, Chamberlain whose mind was still sharp, remained active as a writer, maintaining a correspondence with a whole gamut of figures from Admiral Alfred von Tirpitz to the radical anti-Semitic journalist Theodor Fritsch, the leader of the völkisch Hammerbund ("Hammer League"). From his exile in the Netherlands, the former Kaiser wrote to Chamberlain in 1922 to tell him that thanks to his essays, he had become a Marcionist and now rejected the Old Testament. Wilhelm claimed that on the basis of Chamberlain's work, he now knew that what had become the Old Testament was in fact a Zoroastrian text from ancient Persia (modern Iran) and was therefore "Aryan". The former Kaiser claimed that the Jews had stolen and rewritten this sacred text from the Aryan Persians, ending his letter: "Let us free ourselves from the Judentum with its Jawe!" In 1923, Wilhelm wrote to tell Chamberlain of his belief that not only were the Jews "not our religious forebears", but that Jesus was "not a Jew", was instead an Aryan "of exceptional beauty, tall and slim with a noble face inspiring respect and love; his hair blond shading into chestnut brown, his arms and hands noble and exquisitely formed".
In 1923 Chamberlain met with Adolf Hitler in Bayreuth, and in September he sat in his wheelchair next to Hitler during the völkisch "German Day" paramilitary parade. In September 1923 he wrote a grateful and highly admiring open letter to the NSDAPleader and published an essay ("Gott will es!", "God wants it!") on the front page of the Nazi newspaper Völkischer Beobachter. Chamberlain, paralysed and despondent after Germany's losses in World War I, wrote to Hitler after his first visit in September 1923:
Most respected and dear Hitler, ... It is hardly surprising that a man like that can give peace to a poor suffering spirit! Especially when he is dedicated to the service of the fatherland. My faith in Germandom has not wavered for a moment, though my hopes were—I confess—at a low ebb. With one stroke you have transformed the state of my soul. That Germany, in the hour of her greatest need, brings forth a Hitler—that is proof of her vitality ... that the magnificent Ludendorff openly supports you and your movement: What wonderful confirmation! I can now go untroubled to sleep ... May God protect you!
Joseph Arthur de Gobineau (14 July 1816 – 13 October 1882) was a French aristocrat who is best known today for helping to legitimise racism by use of scientific racist theory and "racial demography" and for his developing the theory of the Aryan master race. Known to his contemporaries as a novelist, diplomat and travel writer, Gobineau was an elitist who, in the immediate aftermath of the Revolutions of 1848, wrote a 1400-page book, An Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races, in which he claimed that aristocrats were superior to commoners and that they possessed more Aryan genetic traits because of less interbreeding with inferior races (Alpines and Mediterraneans).
Gobineau's writings were quickly praised by white supremacist, pro-slavery Americans like Josiah C. Nott and Henry Hotze, who translated his book into English but omitted around 1000 pages of the original book, including those parts that negatively described Americans as a racially mixed population. Gobineau's writings were also influential on prominent anti-Semites such as Richard Wagner, Wagner's son-in-law Houston Stewart Chamberlain, the Romanian politician professor A. C. Cuza, and leaders of the Nazi Party, who later edited and re-published his work.
Herman Bernhard Lundborg
Herman Bernhard Lundborg (April 7, 1868 in Väse in Värmland, Sweden – May 9, 1943 in Östhammar in Uppland, Sweden) was a Swedish physician.
He graduated in medicine at the Karolinska Institutet in 1895, and received his doctorate at the Uppsala University in 1903. He also habilitated there that year for psychiatry and neurology, and in 1915 for racial research and racial biology.
For his doctoral dissertation, Lundborg researched one of the genetic progressive myoclonus epilepsies first described by Heinrich Unverricht in 1891. Besides giving an account of the disease, he traced an affected family back to the 18th century, an analysis unique for that time. He concluded that the family had genetically degenerated because of "unwise marriages". The study has been described as "of considerable historic interest in human genetics". Over the years, the form of epilepsy became known as the Unverricht–Lundborg disease.
Heinrich Unverricht (18 September 1853 – 22 April 1912) was a German internist who was a native of Breslau.
He was on the editorial board of the Hereditas journal, founded 1920, with the scope on genetics.
Lundborg was extremely negative towardsthe Jewish people, and strongly involved with the ideology of racial hygiene. In the beginning of the 20th century, the idea that eugenics could improve the biological basis of society was widely held by academics and lawmakers, particularly in northern Europe and the United States. In 1922Sweden established a eugenic governmental agency, the State Institute of Racial Biology, of which Lundborg was appointed as the head. Under his leadership, the institute began gathering copious statistics and photographs to map the racial make-up of about 100,000 Swedish people.
The roots of Adolf Hitlers anti-semitism did not lie in Germany, but in the Austrian capital Vienna where the vehemently anti-semitic mayor Karl Lueger (24 October 1844 – 10 March 1910) and Austrian politician, and leader and founder of the Austrian Christian Social Party spread his anti-semitic ideas and poisonous anti-semitic ideology. Lueger is credited with the transformation of the city of Vienna into a modern city. The populist and anti-Semitic politics of his Christian Social Party are sometimes viewed as a model for Hitler's Nazism.
Lueger was known for his antisemitic rhetoric and referred to himself as an admirer of Edouard Drumont, who founded the Antisemitic League of France in 1889. Decades later, Adolf Hitler, an inhabitant of Vienna from 1907 to 1913, saw him as an inspiration for his own views on Jews. Though not an explicit pan-Germanist, Lueger advocated racist policies against non-German speaking minorities in Austria-Hungary and in 1887 voted for a bill proposed by his long-time opponent Georg von Schönerer to restrict the immigration of Russian and Romanian Jews. He also overtly supported the völkisch movement of Guido von List and created the pun "Judapest", referring to supposed Jewish domination of the Hungarian capital, Budapest. Adolf Hitler described in his book Mein Kampf how much Lueger's anti-Semitism influenced him.
It is most amazing it would seem of the depth and width this Nazi Ideology could and did spread across pan Europe. It is for this reason to wonder why on this earth the Jewish people would be chosen for such destruction and by Christians
What this widely spread event did prove though, that the Ideal of a few is the most dangerous weapon. What people think, is what they are..
Thank you once again for a very well written and presented historic document that would be worthy upon the desk of most any professor to present to his history class..
In my opinion Nazism was based on a mystic pseudoscience and didn't had deep layers or roots in German and Austrian history, and was rather a mix of German, Austrian, French, English, Swedish, Swiss, American and Russian pseudo scientific ideas, racism and anti-semitism. Nazism only lasted for 12 years. Germans and Austrians were not willing to fight until the end for Nazism, because there was not a majority of the people who really deeply believed that Nazism was the only ideology, mythology, philosophy, faith and direction for Germany. To many Germans and Austrians deserted. German generals capitulated to the Sovjets, Americans and British. The Germans and Austrians weren't Japanese fighters nor Islamic state fighters. Ofcrourse you had some fanatic Waffen-SS guys who fought until the end (not all of them were German/Austrian by the way) and you had some Nazi's who commited suicide, because they couldn't live in a Germany or Austria that wasn't Nazi and from the Führer. They were brainwashed during the twenties in the NSDAP (1920), SA (since 1920), the Schutzstaffel (since 1925) and as kids and teenagers in the Hitlerjugend (since 4 July 1926).
A core of old Prussians, Bavarians and others in the Wehrmacht were not Nazi's, but German patriots, conservatives, former Zentrum (Roman Catholic party) members, Social democrats (former SPD members), Democrats , Liberals, (Freien Demokraten), Unionists, libertarians, Christian Democrats, Monarchists, regionalists and thus also anti-Nazi's. Ofcourse there were anti-Nazi's in the Wehrmacht also. They had to fight, because there was no choice. Refusal ment the deathpenalty or being sent to a Nazi concentration camp.
Resistance in the Army 1938–42
Fritsch and Blomberg
Despite the removal of Blomberg and Fritsch, the army retained considerable independence, and senior officers were able to discuss their political views in private fairly freely. In May 1938, the army leadership was made aware of Hitler's intention of invading Czechoslovakia, even at the risk of war with Britain, France, and/or the Soviet Union. The Army Chief of Staff, General Ludwig Beck, regarded this as not only immoral but reckless, since he believed that Germany would lose such a war. Oster and Beck sent emissaries to Paris and London to advise the British and French to resist Hitler's demands, and thereby strengthen the hand of Hitler's opponents in the Army. Weizsäcker also sent private messages to London urging resistance. The British and French were extremely doubtful of the ability of the German opposition to overthrow the Nazi regime and ignored these messages. An official of the British Foreign Office wrote on August 28, 1938: "We have had similar visits from other emissaries of the Reichsheer, such as Dr. Goerdeler, but those for whom these emissaries claim to speak have never given us any reasons to suppose that they would be able or willing to take action such as would lead to the overthrow of the regime. The events of June 1934 and February 1938 do not lead one to attach much hope to energetic action by the Army against the regime" Because of the failure of Germans to overthrow their Führer in 1938, the British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain was convinced that the resistance comprised a group of people seemingly not well organized.
Writing of the 1938 conspiracy, the German historian Klaus-Jürgen Müller [de] observed that the conspiracy was a loosely organized collection of two different groups. One group comprising the army's Chief of Staff General Ludwig Beck, the Abwehr chief, Admiral Wilhelm Canaris, and the Foreign Office's State Secretary, Baron Ernst von Weizsäcker were the "anti-war" group in the German government, which was determined to avoid a war in 1938 that it felt Germany would lose. This group was not committed to the overthrow of the regime but was loosely allied to another, more radical group, the "anti-Nazi" fraction centered on Colonel Hans Oster and Hans Bernd Gisevius, which wanted to use the crisis as an excuse for executing a putsch to overthrow the Nazi regime. The divergent aims between these two factions produced considerable tensions. The historian Eckart Conze in a 2010 interview stated about the "anti-war" group in 1938:
"An overthrow of Hitler was out of the question. The group wanted to avoid a major war and the potential catastrophic consequences for Germany. Their goal wasn't to get rid of the dictator but, as they saw it, to bring him to his senses."
Colonel Hans Oster
Hans Bernd Gisevius
In August, Beck spoke openly at a meeting of army generals in Berlin about his opposition to a war with the western powers over Czechoslovakia. When Hitler was informed of this, he demanded and received Beck's resignation. Beck was highly respected in the army and his removal shocked the officer corps. His successor as chief of staff, Franz Halder, remained in touch with him, and was also in touch with Oster. Privately, he said that he considered Hitler "the incarnation of evil". During September, plans for a move against Hitler were formulated, involving General Erwin von Witzleben, who was the army commander of the Berlin Military Region and thus well-placed to stage a coup.
Oster, Gisevius, and Schacht urged Halder and Beck to stage an immediate coup against Hitler, but the army officers argued that they could only mobilize support among the officer corps for such a step if Hitler made overt moves towards war. Halder nevertheless asked Oster to draw up plans for a coup. Weizsäcker and Canaris were made aware of these plans. The conspirators disagreed on what to do about Hitler if there was a successful army coup – eventually most overcame their scruples and agreed that he must be killed so that army officers would be free from their oath of loyalty. They agreed Halder would instigate the coup when Hitler committed an overt step towards war. During the planning for the 1938 putsch, Carl Friedrich Goerdeler was in contact through the intermediary of General Alexander von Falkenhausen with Chinese intelligence Most German conservatives favoured Germany's traditional informal alliance with China, and were strongly opposed to the about-face in Germany's Far Eastern policies effected in early 1938 by Joachim von Ribbentrop, who abandoned the alliance with China for an alignment with Japan. As a consequence, agents of Chinese intelligence supported the proposed putsch as a way of restoring the Sino-German alliance.
Remarkably, the army commander, General Walther von Brauchitsch, was well aware of the coup preparations. He told Halder he could not condone such an act, but he did not inform Hitler, to whom he was outwardly subservient, of what he knew. This was a striking example of the code of silent solidarity among senior German Army officers, which was to survive and provide a shield for the resistance groups down to, and in many cases beyond, the crisis of July 1944.
Today's Germany tries to build a Germany and the roots of Pre-Nazi and Post-Nazi Germany. Only some technical achievements and some highways, some buildings and maybe some social laws of the Nazi era remain. But Nazi Germany delivered no significant elements for present day Germany. The qualities, fundament and financial economical base and culture of present day Germany was already there in the late Weimarer republic. Like the rest of Europe Germany suffered under the 1929 Wall Street Crash of 1929 ushered in a worldwide Great Depression which lasted during the Thrities.
Although to many Germans and Austrians supported Nazi Germany and thus the NSDAP party and Adolf Hitler there were also some brave people who opposed him, because they remained human and rejected his regime, ideas and oppression from their christian, jewish, social democratic, christian democratc, liberal, liberal democratic, conservative, liberal conservative, libertarian or Humanistic point of view. I name a few Martin Niemöller and Dietrich Bonhoeffer of the Bekennende Kirche (The Confessing Church) and die Weiße Rose (White Rose), the non-violent, intellectual resistance group in the Third Reich led by a group of students and a professor at the University of Munich. Members of die Weiße Rose (White Rose) were students from the University of Munich which comprised the core of the White Rose: the siblings Hans Scholl and Sophie Scholl, Alexander Schmorell, Willi Graf, Christoph Probst, and Kurt Huber, a professor of philosophy and musicology.
Karl Lueger, (born October 24, 1844, Vienna, Austria—died March 10, 1910, Vienna), politician, cofounder and leader of the Austrian Christian Social Party, and mayor of Vienna who transformed the Austrian capital into a modern city.
Lueger, from a working-class family, studied law at the University of Vienna. Elected to the capital’s municipal council as a liberal in 1875, he soon became popular for his exposure of corruption. Lueger did not hesitate to exploit the prevalent anti-Semitic and nationalistic currents in Vienna for his own demagogic purposes: he supported politicians who actively perpetuated the myth of the blood libel and frequently inveighed against an alleged Jewish influence on academia and the press. Though Lueger’s personal beliefs remained a matter of scholarly debate long after his death, he provided the virulent anti-Semitism of extremists such as Georg, Ritter (knight) von Schönerer, with a patina of mainstream respectability. Lueger had his largest following among artisans and the lower-middle class. Lueger was elected to the Austrian Reichsrat (parliament) in 1885 and in 1889 was one of the founders of the Christian Social Party, remaining one of the party’s most effective leaders until his death.
Karl Lueger around 1908
Lueger opposed Austro-Hungarian dualism and advocated a federal state. When the Christian Social Party won two-thirds of the seats in the Viennese municipal council in 1895, he was elected mayor, but the emperor, Franz Joseph I, regarding Lueger as a social revolutionary, refused to confirm his appointment for two years. From 1897 on, Lueger served as mayor of Vienna. He incorporated the suburbs; brought streetcars, electricity, and gas under the city government; and developed parks and gardens, schools, and hospitals. Under his administration, Vienna became an efficient, modern metropolis.
Lueger was a champion of universal male suffrage, which was introduced in Austria in January 1907. The Christian Social Party’s platform of federation to solve the empire’s nationalities problem was also decisively influenced by him. Throughout the 20th century, historians largely dismissed Lueger’s anti-Semitism as a matter of political expediency and as a reflection of the age. Adolf Hitler—who had moved to Vienna in 1908 and had witnessed Lueger at the apex of his power—praised Lueger’s charisma and popular appeal in Mein Kampf and elsewhere, although Hitler’s own brand of anti-Semitism adhered more closely to the racist demagoguery of Schönerer and Julius Streicher. The events of the Anschluss, World War II, and the Holocaust did not lead to an immediate reappraisal of Lueger and his influence, but by the early 21st century Vienna had begun to distance itself from his legacy. In 2012, in a move that was strongly opposed by members of the far-right Freedom Party, a section of the Ringstrasse, the city’s central boulevard, that had borne Lueger’s name since 1934 was renamed Universitätsring (University Ring).
Israel's Benjamin Netanyahu to be indicted on corruption charges, pending hearing By Oren Liebermann and Andrew Carey, CNN
Updated 5:16 PM ET, Thu February 28, 2019
Jerusalem (CNN)Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu will be indicted on bribery and breach of trust charges arising from three separate corruption investigations, pending a hearing, Israel's attorney general announced Thursday evening.
The announcement, so close to April's general election, marks a dramatic moment in Israeli politics and is a major blow to Netanyahu as he seeks a fifth term in office. He has repeatedly denied any wrongdoing, denouncing the investigations as a media-led witch hunt. In a prime time broadcast shortly after the announcement, Netanyahu blamed the left for pressuring Attorney General Avichai Mandelblit -- a Netanyahu appointee -- to issue an indictment. "The left understands that they will not beat me at the ballot box," Netanyahu said. "They exerted extraordinary pressure on the attorney general to issue an indictment even though there is nothing, in order to influence the elections and to crown a left-wing government." "This entire house of cards will collapse. I am sure of it 4,000%," he added, referencing one of the cases against him.
Benjamin Netanyahu's popularity is dropping with Israeli jews and Diaspora jews. American jews in your USA by the way have different opinions than the Israeli jews. Many American jews are more progressive than the Israeli jews. You could see it this way, American jews are liberal Democratic Party supporters and most Israeli jews are Likud and Donald Trump's administration and Republican Party supporters. But the latter is changing. A new party, the Blue white party has emerged and is a thread to the supremacy of Benjamin Netanyahu.
From left to right: Blue and White party leaders Moshe Ya’alon, Benny Gantz, Yair Lapid, and Gabi Ashkenazi pose for a picture, after announcing their new electoral alliance in Tel Aviv, on February 21, 2019. (Jack Guez/ AFP)
Wczorajszego poranka w Warszawie ogłoszono powstanie nowej partii politycznej. Na sztandarach widniały napisy: Janusz i Janusz! Janusz Palikot i Janusz Korwin-Mikke połączyli siły i stworzyli liberalno-konserwatywną koalicję. Śmiała kombinacja czy daremne urojenie? Janusz Korwin-Mikke był niedostępny dla prasy, a jego biuro jakby nigdy nic, poinformowało, że jest on na trzytygodniowych zakupach w Budapeszcie i kupuje nowe, robione na zamówienie muszki. Janusz Palikot uczył się do długiego i trudnego egzaminu o tym, kto wynalazł średnik i o zawiłych wątkach z Pana Tadeusza.