Pieter, in the current time the terrorist organization can be probably created in a very short time on large scale, since the mass media are everywhere> did not ex[ecy Liberation targets etc... they usually don't go to the soft target. I do believe that the mindless killing would be not taken place in the future
Terrorism in my point of view in the present day is often a tool for NGO (Non Governmental Organisations), non-Parliamentary groups, parties and movements who oppose pluriformity, equality, democracy, tolerance and respect between people, the rule of law (legal systems and Trias politica - The separation of Powers in our democratic systems), and most moderate political (legal) directions, ideologies, government and opposition parties. Terrorism is used for specific interests, from national causes, ideological causes and religious causes.
Terrorism, in the words of Encyclopedia Britannica, is the systematic use of violence to create a general climate of fear in a population and thereby to bring about a particular political objective. Terrorism has been practiced by political organizations with both rightist and leftist objectives, by nationalistic and religious groups, by revolutionaries, and even by state institutions such as armies, intelligence services, and police.
Definitions of terrorism are usually complex and controversial, and, because of the inherent ferocity and violence of terrorism, the term in its popular usage has developed an intense stigma. It was first coined in the 1790s to refer to the terror used during the French Revolution by the revolutionaries against their opponents. The Jacobin party of Maximilien Robespierre carried out a Reign of Terror involving mass executions by the guillotine. Although terrorism in this usage implies an act of violence by a state against its domestic enemies, since the 20th century the term has been applied most frequently to violence aimed, either directly or indirectly, at governments in an effort to influence policy or topple an existing regime.
Louis XVI: execution by guillotine. The execution of Louis XVI in 1793.
Terrorism is not legally defined in all jurisdictions; the statutes that do exist, however, generally share some common elements. Terrorism involves the use or threat of violence and seeks to create fear, not just within the direct victims but among a wide audience. The degree to which it relies on fear distinguishes terrorism from both conventional and guerrilla warfare. Although conventional military forces invariably engage in psychological warfare against the enemy, their principal means of victory is strength of arms. Similarly, guerrilla forces, which often rely on acts of terror and other forms of propaganda, aim at military victory and occasionally succeed (e.g., the Viet Cong in Vietnam and the Khmer Rouge in Cambodia). Terrorism proper is thus the systematic use of violence to generate fear, and thereby to achieve political goals, when direct military victory is not possible. This has led some social scientists to refer to guerrilla warfare as the “weapon of the weak” and terrorism as the “weapon of the weakest.”
In order to attract and maintain the publicity necessary to generate widespread fear, terrorists must engage in increasingly dramatic, violent, and high-profile attacks. These have included hijackings, hostage takings, kidnappings, car bombings, and, frequently, suicide bombings. Although apparently random, the victims and locations of terrorist attacks often are carefully selected for their shock value. Schools, shopping centres, bus and train stations, and restaurants and nightclubs have been targeted both because they attract large crowds and because they are places with which members of the civilian population are familiar and in which they feel at ease. The goal of terrorism generally is to destroy the public’s sense of security in the places most familiar to them. Major targets sometimes also include buildings or other locations that are important economic or political symbols, such as embassies or military installations. The hope of the terrorist is that the sense of terror these acts engender will induce the population to pressure political leaders toward a specific political end.
Police station assault in Punjab, India. An Indian policeman firing a shot during a 12-hour-long gun battle in the town of Dinanagar, in the northern state of Punjab, India, July 27, 2015. Three armed gunmen attacked a police station, killing four police officers and three civilians before succumbing to the counterassault by local police and Indian commando units. Channi Anand/AP Images
Some definitions treat all acts of terrorism, regardless of their political motivations, as simple criminal activity. For example, in the United States the standard definition used by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) describes terrorism as “the unlawful use of force and violence against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives.” The element of criminality, however, is problematic, because it does not distinguish among different political and legal systems and thus cannot account for cases in which violent attacks against a government may be legitimate. A frequently mentioned example is the African National Congress (ANC) of South Africa, which committed violent actions against that country’s apartheid government but commanded broad sympathy throughout the world. Another example is the Resistance movement against the Nazi occupation of France during World War II.
Since the 20th century, ideology and political opportunism have led a number of countries to engage in transnational terrorism, often under the guise of supporting movements of national liberation. (Hence, it became a common saying that “One man’s terrorist is another man’s freedom fighter.”) The distinction between terrorism and other forms of political violence became blurred—particularly as many guerrilla groups often employed terrorist tactics—and issues of jurisdiction and legality were similarly obscured.
These problems have led some social scientists to adopt a definition of terrorism based not on criminality but on the fact that the victims of terrorist violence are most often innocent civilians. For example, the U.S. government eventually accepted the view that terrorism was premeditated, politically motivated violence perpetrated against noncombatant targets. Even this definition is flexible, however, and on occasion it has been expanded to include various other factors, such as that terrorist acts are clandestine or surreptitious, that terrorists choose their victims randomly, and that terrorist acts are intended to create an overwhelming sense of fear.
In the late 20th century, the term ecoterrorism was used to describe acts of environmental destruction committed in order to further a political goal or as an act of war, such as the burning of Kuwaiti oil wells by the Iraqi army during the Persian Gulf War. The term also was applied to certain environmentally benign though criminal acts, such as the spiking of lumber trees, intended to disrupt or prevent activities allegedly harmful to the environment.
Persian Gulf War: burning oil wells. Oil wells near Kuwait city, Kuwait, that were set on fire by retreating Iraqi forces during the Persian Gulf War (1990–91). Tech. Sgt. David McLeod/U.S. Department of Defense.
Types Of Terrorism
Members of the Northern Irish terrorist Real Irish Republican Army (Real IRA/RIRA) parade in Northern Ireland. RIRA stands for dissident republicanism, physical force Irish republicanism, left-wing (Irish) nationalism and socialism.
Lyra McKee's murder by the Real IRA during the Derry riots will be a pivotal moment for Northern Ireland
Armed and masked members of the Ulster Volunteer Force on the Shankill Road, one of the main roads leading through west Belfast, in Northern Ireland. The Ulster Volunteer Force is an Ulster loyalist (Protestant Pro-British) paramilitary group. It emerged in 1966. Its first leader was Gusty Spence, a former British soldier. The group undertook an armed campaign of almost thirty years during the Troubles.
Members of the Protestant, Unionist, Northern Irish Ulster Volunteer Force with their arms
A masked member of the Ulster Defence Association on a 'street patrol' in Northern Ireland
A mural devoted to the Ulster Freedom Fighters (UVF) and Ulster Defence Association, Pro-British Protestant Unionist/Loyalist terror gang in Northern Ireland
Armed men of a Paramilitary group the New IRA in the woods of Northern Ireland. The police and security services are fully aware of the danger they pose – and their response is anything but low-key.
Volunteers of the Real Irish Republican Army (RIRA) armed with AKM and AK-47 assault rifles, in what the Irish Republican and nationalists call British Occupied North of Ireland, 2011
Masked members of the Real IRA at a republican commemoration in Londonderry, Northern Ireland.
Various attempts have been made to distinguish among types of terrorist activities. It is vital to bear in mind, however, that there are many kinds of terrorist movements, and no single theory can cover them all. Not only are the aims, members, beliefs, and resources of groups engaged in terrorism extremely diverse, but so are the political contexts of their campaigns. One popular typology identifies three broad classes of terrorism: revolutionary, subrevolutionary, and establishment terrorism. Although this typology has been criticized as inexhaustive, it provides a useful framework for understanding and evaluating terrorist activities.
Revolutionary terrorism is arguably the most common form. Practitioners of this type of terrorism seek the complete abolition of a political system and its replacement with new structures. Modern instances of such activity include campaigns by the Italian Red Brigades, the German Red Army Faction (Baader-Meinhof Gang), the Basque separatist group ETA, and the Peruvian Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso), each of which attempted to topple a national regime. Subrevolutionary terrorism is rather less common. It is used not to overthrow an existing regime but to modify the existing sociopolitical structure. Since this modification is often accomplished through the threat of deposing the existing regime, subrevolutionary groups are somewhat more difficult to identify. An example can be seen in the ANC and its campaign to end apartheid in South Africa.
The Logo of the extreme left Red Army Fraction (Bader Meinhoff Gruppe) in West-Germany which operated between 1970–1998
Hanns Martin Schleyer, the West German business executive and employer and industry representative on 13 October 1977, after being kidnapped by the RAF.
The aftermath of an ETA attack on the Civil Guard in Vic, the capital of the comarca of Osona, in the Barcelona Province, Catalonia, Spain.
Sendero Luminoso fighters in Peru
Propaganda Poster of the Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso) in Peru
The Communist Party of Peru – Shining Path (Spanish: Partido Comunista del Perú - Sendero Luminoso) waged a bloody insurgency until the government effectively defeated it in the 1990s
Jaga/Karl/John/Kaima/Jeanne/Ludwik/Eric and others,
What maybe the largest problem in Europe and on other continent is that you have people who think in a absolutist, doctrinary, dogmatic, orthodox, fundamentalist, radical and extremist way. There is only one direction in their mindset, only one philosophy, one ideology, one way of thinking. And in that simplistic narrative everybody else and all other parties, movements and directions are wrong. In that mindset and conviction it is justified to attack others with other opinions, mindsets, convictions and ways of living. In that mindset it is okay to harass, violate property, damage property and wound, maim and kill other people, because they are different than you. That is the mindset of the extreme-left, far right and Islamist terrorist.
The Sunni Muslim Salafist/Wahhabist Islamic Jihadist terrorist sees any fellow Sunni Muslim who is not Salafist or Wahhabist as a heretic, heathen or non believer. They hate Shia Muslims and Ahmadiyya Muslims and reject Sufism; the "Islamic mysticism", "the inward dimension of Islam" or "the phenomenon of mysticism within Islam". They think it is justified to murder Christians, Jews, Druze, Jezidi, Zoroastrists, Hindu's, Buddhists and non believers like Agnostic people, secular Muslims, atheists, secular Humanists and Heathen people.
In Western-Europe and the USA we have experience with far right and extreme left terrorism, separatist groups and sectarian movements. Dogmatic rightwingers today in the Netherlands reject everything which is radical left, leftwing and centre left, liberal or moderate centre right (because the moderate centre right forms coalition governments and regional and local administrations with centre left and leftwing political parties). Dogmatic leftwingers reject everything which is centre right liberal, liberal conservative, conservative, christian democratic, rightwing Populist, Nationalist, too capitalist and rightwing in general. We have a very polarised society today in which people don't want to listen to "the other" whom is different from them, and only live and think from their own political corner. That could be fruit for future terrorism, if kids, teenagers or young adults are born and raised with anti-rightwing or anti-leftwing indoctrination or with radical fundamentalist religious beliefs. For instance a Muslim Salafist environment which rejects Dutch legislation, European (EU) legislation, the Trias Politica (Separation of powers), the equality of men and women, and reject liberal, conservative, libertarian, social democratic, christian democratic and liberal-conservative ideas, because these are democratic ideologies. And the rejection of democracy, freedom, pluriformity, freedom of opinion, freedom of speech and freedom of organisation.
We know terrorism in many forms, also for instance eco terrorism, sectarian group terrorism, ethnic terrorism (linked to tensions between ethnic groups) and separatism.